Gut microbes respond differently to foods with similar nutrition labels

gut bacteria
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Foods that look the identical on nutrition labels can have vastly totally different results on our microbiomes, report researchers in a paper publishing June 12 within the journal Cell Host & Microbe. The researchers’ observations of individuals’ diets and stool samples over the course of 17 days advised that the correlation between what we eat and what’s occurring with our intestine microbes won’t be as simple as we thought. This provides an elevated degree of complexity to analysis targeted on enhancing health by manipulating the microbiome.

“Nutrition labels are human-centric,” says senior writer Dan Knights, of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and the BioTechnology Institute on the University of Minnesota. “They do not present a lot details about how the goes to change from day to day or individual to individual.”

In the research, the investigators enrolled 34 individuals to document all the things they ate for 17 days. Stool samples have been collected day by day, and shotgun metagenomic sequencing was carried out. This allowed the researchers to see at very excessive decision how totally different individuals’s microbiomes, in addition to the enzymes and metabolic features that they affect, have been altering from day to day in response to what they ate. It offered a useful resource for analyzing the relationships between and the way the microbiome modifications over time.

“We expected that by doing this dense sampling—where you could see what people were eating every single day and what’s happening to their microbiome—we would be able to correlate dietary nutrients with specific strains of microbes, as well as account for the differences in microbiomes between people,” Knights says. “But what we found were not the strong associations we expected. We had to scratch our heads and come up with a new approach for measuring and comparing the different foods.”

What the researchers noticed was a a lot nearer correspondence between modifications within the eating regimen and the microbiome once they thought-about how foods have been associated to one another moderately than solely their dietary content material. For instance, two several types of leafy greens like spinach and kale might have a similar affect on the microbiome, whereas one other sort of vegetable like carrots or tomatoes might have a really totally different influence, even when the traditional nutrient profiles are similar. The researchers developed a tree construction to relate foods to one another and share statistical info throughout intently associated foods.

Two individuals within the research consumed nothing however Soylent, a meal alternative drink that’s common with individuals who work in know-how. Although it was a really small pattern, knowledge from these individuals confirmed variation within the microbiome from day to day, suggesting that a monotonous food plan does not essentially lead to a secure microbiome.

“The microbiome has been linked to a broad vary of human circumstances, together with metabolic issues, , and infections, so there’s robust motivation to manipulate the microbiome with eating regimen as a method to affect health,” Knights concludes. “This research means that it is extra difficult than simply taking a look at dietary elements like fiber and sugar. Much extra analysis is required earlier than we will perceive how the complete vary of vitamins in impacts how the microbiome responds to what we eat.”

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More info:
Cell Host & Microbe, Johnson et al.: “Daily longitudinal sampling reveals personalized diet-microbiome associations.” , DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2019.05.005

Gut microbes respond differently to foods with similar nutrition labels (2019, June 12)
retrieved 12 June 2019

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